Financial Management

Whether you are a finance manager or a business owner, understanding financial management is key to making informed decisions on how you manage money. 

This article explores the basics of financial management and provides an overview of its important areas.


What is financial management?

Financial management involves the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of a business’s monetary resources to achieve its goals.

It is the appropriate use of an organization’s financial resources, such as making investment decisions and employing cash management strategies to maximize profits and cut risk.


How does financial management work? 

Here are the major distinct areas that make up financial management:

Financial Planning: This involves setting financial goals, forecasting future cash flows and determining how to achieve the goals.

Budgeting: This involves creating a financial plan and allocating resources to achieve them.

Investment Decisions: This involves making decisions about investing in assets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, etc to maximize returns while minimizing risk.

Capital Structure Management: This involves decisions about the optimal mix of debt and equity financing to fund the organization’s operations and growth.

Cash Management: Effective cash management involves managing liquidity and making decisions about how to invest surplus cash.

Financial Reporting: Financial management also involves the preparation of financial statements and reports to stakeholders about the organization’s financial performance.

Risk Management: This involves identifying and managing financial risks to the organization, such as credit risk, interest rate risk, etc

Overall, financial management works through the combination and coordination of these activities to achieve the organization’s financial goals and maximize shareholder value.


What are the types of financial management?


1. Corporate Financial Management

This focuses on making decisions related to the financing and investment of an organization. It involves managing the capital structure, determining the optimal mix of debt and equity financing, and making investment decisions.


2. Personal Financial Management

This focuses on managing the financial resources of individuals. It includes budgeting, saving, investing, and protecting assets through insurance and estate planning.


3. Public Financial Management

This focuses on government entities, including budget preparation, revenue collection, and expenditure management.


4. International Financial Management

This involves the financing and investment of international operations, including currency risk management and foreign investment decisions.


5. Non-Profit Financial Management

This involves the financial management of non-profit organizations, including fundraising, and grants management.


Example of Financial management

The financial manager will first assess the company’s financial position and determine how much funding is needed to support the expansion. They will then develop a budget that includes the costs associated with the expansion, such as new equipment and employee salaries.

Next, the financial manager will evaluate the risks and rewards of different financing options, such as taking out a loan or issuing new stock, to determine which option is the best fit for the company.

Once the financing is secured, the financial manager will oversee the implementation of the expansion, monitoring expenses to ensure that they stay within budget. They will also regularly assess the company’s financial performance to determine if adjustments need to be made to ensure the expansion is successful.

This is just one example of how financial management can be practiced. 

Importance of financial management

  1. To achieve your business’s financial goals
  2. To help in decision-making
  3. To maintain financial stability
  4. To maximize shareholder value
  5. To improve transparency and accountability
  6. To ensure compliance.